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West Virginia Theft Laws

West Virginia Theft Laws

 

ARTICLE 3A. SHOPLIFTING.

§61-3A-1. Shoplifting defined.
(a) A person commits the offense of shoplifting if, with intent to appropriate merchandise without paying the merchant's stated price for the merchandise, such person, alone or in concert with another person, knowingly:

(1) Conceals the merchandise upon his or her person or in another manner; or

(2) Removes or causes the removal of merchandise from the mercantile establishment or beyond the last station for payment; or

(3) Alters, transfers or removes any price marking affixed to the merchandise; or

(4) Transfers the merchandise from one container to another; or

(5) Causes the cash register or other sales recording device to reflect less than the merchant's stated price for the merchandise; or

(6) Removes a shopping cart from the premises of the mercantile establishment; or

(7) Repudiates a card-not-present credit or debit transaction after having taken delivery of merchandise ordered from the merchant and does not return the merchandise or attempt to make other arrangements with the vendor.

(b) A person also commits the offense of shoplifting if such person, alone or in concert with another person, knowingly and with intent obtains an exchange or refund or attempts to obtain an exchange or refund for merchandise which has not been purchased from the mercantile establishment.

§61-3A-2. Evidence.
(a) Evidence of stated price or ownership of merchandise may include, but is not limited to:

(1) The actual merchandise alleged to have been shoplifted; or

(2) The unaltered content of the price tag or marking from such merchandise; or

(3) Properly identified photographs of such merchandise.

(b) Any merchant may testify at a trial as to the stated price or ownership of merchandise, as well as to other matters pertaining to the case.

§61-3A-3. Penalties.
A person convicted of shoplifting shall be punished as follows:

(a) First offense conviction. -- Upon a first shoplifting conviction:

(1) When the value of the merchandise is less than or equal to five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not more than two hundred fifty dollars.

(2) When the value of the merchandise exceeds five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and such fine shall not be suspended, or the person shall be confined in jail not more than sixty days, or both.

(b) Second offense conviction. -- Upon a second shoplifting conviction:

(1) When the value of the merchandise is less than or equal to five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and such fine shall not be suspended, or the person shall be confined in jail not more than six months or both.

(2) When the value of the merchandise exceeds five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars and shall be confined in jail for not less than six months nor more than one year.

(c) Third offense conviction. -- Upon a third or subsequent shoplifting conviction, regardless of the value of the merchandise, the person is guilty of a felony and shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one year nor more than ten years. At least one year shall actually be spent in confinement and not subject to probation: Provided, That an order for home detention by the court pursuant to the provisions of article eleven-b, chapter sixty-two of this code may be used as an alternative sentence to the incarceration required by this subsection.

(d) Mandatory penalty. -- In addition to the fines and imprisonment imposed by this section, in all cases of conviction for the offense of shoplifting, the court shall order the defendant to pay a penalty to the mercantile establishment involved in the amount of fifty dollars, or double the value of the merchandise involved, whichever is higher. The mercantile establishment shall be entitled to collect such mandatory penalty as in the case of a civil judgment. This penalty shall be in addition to the mercantile establishment's rights to recover the stolen merchandise.

(e) In determining the number of prior shoplifting convictions for purposes of imposing punishment under this section, the court shall disregard all such convictions occurring more than seven years prior to the shoplifting offense in question.

§61-3A-4. Shoplifting constitutes breach of peace; detention.
An act of shoplifting as defined herein, is hereby declared to constitute a breach of peace and any owner of merchandise, his agent or employee, or any law-enforcement officer who has reasonable ground to believe that a person has committed shoplifting, may detain such person in a reasonable manner and for a reasonable length of time not to exceed thirty minutes, for the purpose of investigating whether or not such person has committed or attempted to commit shoplifting. Such reasonable detention shall not constitute an arrest nor shall it render the owner of merchandise, his agent or employee, liable to the person detained.

§61-3A-4a. Criminal offenses involving theft detection shielding devices; detention.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Theft detection device" means any tag or other device that is used to prevent or detect theft and that is attached to merchandise held for resale by a merchant or to property of a merchant.

(2) "Theft detection device remover" means any tool or device specifically designed or manufactured to be used to remove a theft detection device from merchandise held for resale by a merchant or property of a merchant.

(3) "Theft detection shielding device" means any laminated or coated bag or device designed to shield merchandise held for resale by a merchant or property of a merchant from being detected by an electronic or magnetic theft alarm sensor.

(b) A person commits unlawful distribution of a theft detection shielding device when he or she knowingly manufactures, sells, offers to sell or distribute any theft detection shielding device.

(c) A person commits unlawful possession of a theft detection shielding device when he or she knowingly possesses any theft detection shielding device with the intent to commit theft or retail theft.

(d) A person commits unlawful possession of a theft detection shielding device remover when he or she knowingly possesses any theft detection device remover with the intent to use such tool to remove any theft detection device from any merchandise without the permission of the merchant or person owning or holding said merchandise.

(e) A person commits unlawful use of a theft detection shielding device or a theft detection shielding remover when he or she uses or attempts to use either device while committing a violation of this article.

(f) A person commits unlawful removal of a theft detection device when he or she intentionally removes any theft detection device by the use of manual force or by any tool or device, which is not specifically designed or manufactured to remove theft detection devices, from merchandise prior to purchase.

(g) Any person convicted for violating the provisions of subsections (b), (c), (d) or (e) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail facility for not less than thirty days nor more than one year, and fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.

(h) Any person convicted of violating the provisions of subsection (f) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and such fine shall not be suspended, or the person shall be confined in the county or regional jail not more than sixty days, or both.

(i) The activation of an anti-shoplifting or inventory control device as a result of a person exiting the establishment or a protected area within the establishment shall constitute reasonable cause for the detention of the person so exiting by the owner or operator or the establishment or by an agent or employee of the owner or operator, provided sufficient notice has been posted to advise the patrons that such a device is being utilized. Each such detention shall be made only in a reasonable manner and only for a reasonable period of time sufficient for any inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the activation of the device or for the recovery of goods.

(j) Such taking into custody and detention by a law-enforcement officer, merchant, or merchant's employee, if done in compliance with all the requirements of this section, does not render such law-enforcement officer, merchant, or merchant's employee criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

§61-3A-5. Civil liability.
(a) General rule. -- Any person who commits any of the acts described in section one of this article shall be civilly liable:

(1) To restore the merchandise to the mercantile establishment; and

(2) If such merchandise is not recoverable or is damaged, for actual damages, including the value of the merchandise involved in the shoplifting; and

(3) For other actual damages arising from the incident, not including the loss of time or loss of wages incurred by the mercantile establishment or any merchant in connection with the apprehension and processing of the suspect; and

(4) In all cases, for a penalty to be paid to the mercantile establishment in the amount of fifty dollars or double the value of the merchandise, whichever is higher.

(b) Costs and attorneys' fees. -- A merchant who is a prevailing party under this section is entitled to costs.

(c) Effect of conviction. -- A conviction for the offense of theft by shoplifting is not a prerequisite to the maintenance of a civil action authorized by this section. However, a merchant who has recovered the penalty prescribed by section three of this article is not entitled to recover the penalty imposed by this section.

(d) Right to demand payment. -- The fact that a mercantile establishment may bring an action against an individual as provided in this section does not limit the right of such establishment to demand, orally or in writing, that a person who is liable for damages or a penalty under this section remit said damages or penalty prior to the commencement of any legal action.

§61-3A-6. Definitions.
(a) "Card-not-present credit or debit transaction" means a credit or debit sale of merchandise by telephone, mail order, internet or other means that does not require the cardholder's signature or physical presentation of the credit or debit card to the merchant.

(b) "Conceal" means to hide, hold or carry merchandise so that, although there may be some notice of its presence, it is not visible through ordinary observation.

(c) "Merchant" means an owner or operator of any mercantile establishment and includes the merchant's employees, servants, security agents or other agents.

(d) "Mercantile establishment" means any place where merchandise is displayed, held or offered for sale, either at retail or wholesale. "Mercantile establishment" does not include adjoining parking lots or adjoining areas of common use with other establishments.

(e) "Merchandise" means any goods, foodstuffs, wares or personal property, or any part or portion thereof of any type or description displayed, held or offered for sale, or a shopping cart.

(f) "Value of the merchandise" means the merchant's stated price of the merchandise, or, in the event of altering, transferring or removing a price marking or causing a cash register or other sales device to reflect less than the retail value of the merchandise, as defined in section one of this article, the difference between the merchant's stated price of the merchandise and the altered price.

 

CHAPTER 61. CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENT.
ARTICLE 3. CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY.

§61-3-11. Burglary; entry of dwelling or outhouse; penalties.
(a) Burglary shall be a felony and any person convicted thereof shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than fifteen years. If any person shall, in the nighttime, break and enter, or enter without breaking, or shall, in the daytime, break and enter, the dwelling house, or an outhouse adjoining thereto or occupied therewith, of another, with intent to commit a crime therein, he shall be deemed guilty of burglary.

(b) If any person shall, in the daytime, enter without breaking a dwelling house, or an outhouse adjoining thereto or occupied therewith, of another, with intent to commit a crime therein, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.

(c) The term "dwelling house," as used in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, shall include, but not be limited to, a mobile home, house trailer, modular home, factory-built home or self-propelled motor home, used as a dwelling regularly or only from time to time, or any other nonmotive vehicle primarily designed for human habitation and occupancy and used as a dwelling regularly or only from time to time.

§61-3-12. Entry of building other than dwelling; entry of railroad, traction or motorcar, steamboat or other vessel; penalties; counts in indictment.
If any person shall, at any time, break and enter, or shall enter without breaking, any office, shop, storehouse, warehouse, banking house, or any house or building, other than a dwelling house or outhouse adjoining thereto or occupied therewith, or any railroad or traction car, propelled by steam, electricity or otherwise, or any steamboat or other boat or vessel, within the jurisdiction of any county in this state, with intent to commit a felony or any larceny, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years. And if any person shall, at any time, break and enter, or shall enter without breaking, any automobile, motorcar or bus, with like intent, within the jurisdiction of any county in this state, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the county jail not less than two nor more than twelve months and be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.

An indictment for burglary may contain one or more counts for breaking and entering, or for entering without breaking, the house or building mentioned in the count for burglary under the provisions of this and the preceding section.

§61-3-13. Grand and petit larceny distinguished; penalties.
(a) If a person commits simple larceny of goods or chattels of the value of one thousand dollars or more, such person is guilty of a felony, designated grand larceny, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(b) If a person commits simple larceny of goods or chattels of the value of less than one thousand dollars, such person is guilty of a misdemeanor, designated petit larceny, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

§61-3-14. Larceny of bank notes, checks, writings of value and book accounts; penalty.
If any person steal any bank note, check, or other writing or paper of value, or any book of accounts for or concerning money or goods due to be delivered, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof, and receive the same punishment, according to the value of the article stolen, that is prescribed for the punishment of larceny of goods or chattels.

§61-3-15. How value of notes, book accounts and other writings determined.
In a prosecution under the preceding section, the money due on or secured by the writing, paper or book, and remaining unsatisfied, or which in any event might be collected thereon, or the value of the property or money affected thereby, shall be deemed to be the value of the article stolen.

§61-3-16. Larceny of things savoring of realty.
Things which savor of the realty, and are at the time they are taken part of the freehold, whether they be of the substance or produce thereof, or affixed thereto, shall be deemed goods and chattels, of which larceny may be committed, although there be no interval between the severing and taking away.

§61-3-18. Receiving or transferring stolen goods.
If any person buy or receive from another person, or aid in concealing, or transfer to a person other than the owner thereof, any stolen goods or other thing of value, which he knows or has reason to believe has been stolen, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof, and may be prosecuted although the principal offender be not convicted.

§61-3-19. Bringing into this state, receiving or disposing of property stolen in another state; penalty.
If any person shall bring into this state, or shall receive, convert to his own use, or sell, property of any character, of value, which was stolen in another state, and which he knows or has reason to believe was stolen, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof in the county in which such property may be found, used, converted or sold, and may be prosecuted for such offense therein, and, upon conviction, shall be punished as provided for the offense of larceny committed within this state.

§61-3-20. Embezzlement.
If any officer, agent, clerk or servant of this state, or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation, or of any banking institution, or other corporation, or any officer of public trust in this state, or any agent, clerk or servant of any firm or person, or company or association of persons not incorporated, embezzles or fraudulently converts to his own use, bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money, or any effects or property of any other person, which shall have come into his possession, or been placed under his care or management, by virtue of his office, place or employment, he shall be guilty of the larceny thereof. If such guilty person be an officer, agent, clerk or servant of any banking institution, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than ten years. And it shall not be necessary to describe in the indictment, or to identify upon the trial, the particular bullion, money, bank note, draft or security for money which is so taken, converted to his own use or embezzled by him.

And whenever any officer, agent, clerk or servant of this state, or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation, shall appropriate or use for his own benefit, or for the benefit of any other person, any bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money or funds belonging to this state or to any such county, district, school district or municipal corporation, he shall be held to have embezzled the same and be guilty of the larceny thereof. In the prosecution of any such officer, agent, clerk or servant of this state or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation charged with appropriation or use for his own benefit or the benefit of any other person, any bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money or funds belonging to this state or to any county, district, school district or municipal corporation, it shall not be necessary to describe in the indictment, or to identify upon the trial, the particular bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money or funds appropriated or used for his own benefit or for the benefit of any other person.

§61-3-20a. Embezzlement by misuse of power of attorney or other fiduciary relationship; penalty.
Any person who holds a fiduciary power of attorney or who has a fiduciary relationship with a person and in so doing wilfully and with intent to defraud embezzles, misappropriates or fraudulently converts for his or her own benefit, or for the benefit of another, the assets or property, real or personal, with which he or she has been entrusted, or misuses or misappropriates funds from the person to whom he or she owes a fiduciary duty or misuses any account, line of credit or credit card of the principal for purposes not contemplated by the terms of the power of attorney instrument or fiduciary relationship, or for purposes not intended by the principal in the execution of the power of attorney or for purposes not intended by the fiduciary relationship, shall be held to have embezzled the same and, upon conviction, shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.

§61-3-21. Embezzlement by carrier or other person.
If any carrier or other person to whom money or other property which may be the subject of larceny may be delivered to be carried for hire, or if any other person who may be intrusted with such property, embezzle or fraudulently convert to his own use, or secrete with intent to do so, any such property, either in mass or otherwise, before delivery thereof at the place at which, or to the person to whom, they were to be delivered, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.

§61-3-22. Falsifying accounts; penalty.
If any officer, clerk or agent of this state, or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation thereof, or of any banking institution or incorporated company, or any clerk or agent of any firm or person or association of persons not incorporated, make, alter or omit to make any entry in any book of account of, or in any account kept by such state, county, district, school district, municipal corporation, banking institution, incorporated company, firm or person, or association of persons, or mutilate, destroy or conceal any such account or book of accounts, with intent in so doing to conceal, the true state of any account, or to defraud the state or any county, district, school district, municipal corporation, banking institution, company, firm or person, or with intent to enable or assist any person to obtain money to which he was not entitled, such officer, clerk or agent shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.

§61-3-23. Destroying or concealing will; embezzlement by fiduciary; penalty.
If any person fraudulently destroy or conceal any will or codicil, with intent to prevent the probate thereof, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. If any guardian, personal representative, or other fiduciary, shall wilfully and knowingly fail to make and return an inventory of any personal property (of which an inventory is required by law to be made) which may come to his hands as such, or wilfully and knowingly fail or refuse to produce any such property for appraisement in the manner required by law, or wilfully and knowingly conceal or embezzle any such property, he shall be guilty of the larceny thereof; and the failure of any such guardian, personal representative or other fiduciary to account for and pay over or deliver, when directed by the court, as required by law, any money, bullion, bank notes or other property, determined by the proper officer of court to be due and payable, shall be prima facie evidence that such guardian, personal representative or other fiduciary has embezzled the same.

§61-3-24. Obtaining money, property and services by false pretenses; disposing of property to defraud creditors; penalties.
(a) (1) If a person obtains from another by any false pretense, token or representation, with intent to defraud, any money, goods or other property which may be the subject of larceny; or

(2) If a person obtains on credit from another any money, goods or other property which may be the subject of larceny, by representing that there is money due him or her or to become due him or her, and assigns the claim for such money, in writing, to the person from whom he or she obtains such money, goods or other property, and afterwards collects the money due or to become due, without the consent of the assignee, and with the intent to defraud;

(3) Such person is guilty of larceny. If the value of the money, goods or other property is one thousand dollars or more, such person is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the value of the money, goods or other property is less than one thousand dollars, such person is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than one year or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

(b) If a person obtains by any false pretense, token or representation, with intent to defraud, the signature of another to a writing, the false making of which would be forgery, the person is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than five years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(c) (1) If a person removes any of his or her property out of any county with the intent to prevent the same from being levied upon by any execution; or

(2) If a person secretes, assigns or conveys, or otherwise disposes of any of his or her property with the intent to defraud any creditor or to prevent the property from being made liable for payment of debts; or

(3) If a person receives the property of another with the intent to defraud any creditor or to prevent the property from being made liable for the payment of debts;

(4) The person is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars and be confined in jail not more than one year.

(d) If a person, firm or corporation obtains labor, services or any other such thing of value from another by any false pretense, token or representation, with intent to defraud, the person, firm or corporation is guilty of theft of services. If the value of the labor, services or any other such thing of value is one thousand dollars or more, the person, firm or corporation is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the value of the labor, services or any other such thing of value is less than one thousand dollars, the person, firm or corporation is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than one year or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(e) Theft of services includes the obtaining of a stop payment order on a check, draft or order for payment of money owed for services performed in good faith and in substantial compliance with a written or oral contract for services, with the fraudulent intent to permanently deprive the provider of such labor, services or other such thing of value of the payment represented by such check, draft or order. Notwithstanding the penalties set forth elsewhere in this section, any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two times the face value of the check, draft or order.

(f) Prosecution for an offense under this section does not bar or otherwise affect adversely any right or liability to damages, forfeiture or other civil remedy arising from any or all elements of the criminal offense.

§61-3-24a. Attempted or fraudulent use, forgery, traffic of credit cards; possession and transfer of credit cards and credit card making equipment; false or fraudulent use of telephonic services; penalties.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Counterfeit credit card" means the following:

(A) Any credit card or a representation, depiction, facsimile, aspect or component thereof that is counterfeit, fictitious, altered, forged, lost, stolen, incomplete or obtained in violation of this section, or as part of a scheme to defraud; or

(B) Any invoice, voucher, sales draft or other reflection or manifestation of such a card.

(2) "Credit card making equipment" means any equipment, machine, plate mechanism, impression or any other contrivance which can be used to produce a credit card, a counterfeit credit card, or any aspect or component of either.

(3) "Traffic" means:

(A) To sell, transfer, distribute, dispense or otherwise dispose of any property; or

(B) To buy, receive, possess, obtain control of or use property with the intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense or otherwise dispose of such property.

(4) "Notice" means either information given in person or information given in writing to the person to whom the number, card or device was issued. The sending of a notice in writing by registered or certified mail in the United States mail, duly stamped and addressed to such person at his last known address, is prima facie evidence that such notice was duly received. A cardholder's knowledge of the revocation of his or her credit card may be reasonably inferred by evidence that notice of such revocation was mailed to him or her, at least four days prior to his or her use or attempted use of the credit card, by first class mail at his or her last known address.

(b) (1) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to obtain or attempt to obtain credit, or to purchase or attempt to purchase any goods, property or service, by the use of any false, fictitious or counterfeit credit card, telephone number, credit number or other credit device, or by the use of any credit card, telephone number, credit number or other credit device of another beyond or without the authority of the person to whom such card, number or device was issued, or by the use of any credit card, telephone number, credit number or other credit device in any case where such card, number or device has been revoked and notice of such revocation has been given to the person to whom issued.

(2) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to obtain or attempt to obtain, by the use of any fraudulent scheme, device, means or method, telephone or telegraph service or the transmission of a message, signal or other communication by telephone or telegraph, or over telephone or telegraph facilities with intent to avoid payment of charges therefor.

(3) Any person who violates any provision of this subsection, if the credit, goods, property, service or transmission is of the value of one thousand dollars or more, is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars; and if of less value, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than one year or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

(c) A person is guilty of forgery of a credit card when he or she makes, manufactures, presents, embosses, alters or utters a credit card with intent to defraud any person, issuer of credit or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value in exchange for payment by credit card and he or she is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than fifty nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(d) Any person who traffics in or attempts to traffic in ten or more counterfeit credit cards or credit card account numbers of another in any six-month period is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than fifty nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(e) A person who receives, possesses, transfers, buys, sells, controls or has custody of any credit card making equipment with intent that the equipment be used in the production of counterfeit credit cards is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than one thousand nor more than five thousand dollars.

(f) A person who knowingly receives, possesses, acquires, controls or has custody of a counterfeit credit card is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not exceeding six months or fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both.

§61-3-24b. Making, selling, possessing, transferring or advertising for sale a device or plans for a device designed to obtain or use telephone or telegraph service or facilities by false or fraudulent means; penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to make, sell, offer or advertise for sale, possess, or give or otherwise transfer to another any instrument, apparatus, equipment, or device or plans or instructions for making or assembling any instrument, apparatus, equipment, or device which has been designed, adapted, used, or employed with the intent or for the purpose of (1) obtaining telephone or telegraph service or the transmission of a message, signal or other communication by telephone or telegraph, or over telephone or telegraph facilities without the payment of charges therefor, or (2) concealing or assisting another to conceal from any supplier of telephone or telegraph service or from any person charged with the responsibility of enforcing this section, the existence or place of origin or of destination of any message, signal, or other communication by telephone or telegraph, or over telephone or telegraph facilities.

Any person who violates any provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding twelve months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court. Any such instrument, apparatus, equipment, or device, or plans or instructions therefor, may be seized by court order or under the warrant of a justice; and, upon the conviction of any person owning same or having any interest therein for a violation of any provision of this section, which conviction has become final, such instrument, apparatus, equipment, device, plans or instructions shall be destroyed as contraband by the sheriff of the county in which such person was convicted.

§61-3-24c. Intercepting or monitoring customer telephone calls; penalty.
(a) It is unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to intercept or monitor, or to attempt to intercept or monitor, the transmission of a message, signal or other communication by telephone between an employee or similar agent of such person, firm or corporation and a customer of such person, firm or corporation unless such person, firm or corporation does all of the following:

(1) Notifies each employee or agent subject to interception or monitoring that their telephone messages are subject to interception or monitoring.

(2) Provides telephone instruments for employee's personal use which are not subject to intercepting or monitoring.

Any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than one year, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b) Nothing contained in this section shall require marking of telephone instruments nor require consent to interception or monitoring, in the case of a wiretap or other form of monitoring which is engaged in for the sole purpose of law enforcement and which is lawful in all other respects.

(c) The public service commission shall not issue any rule or regulation requiring or suggesting the monitoring of any message, signal or other communication by telephone to or from any telephone utility customer so as to obtain the content or substance of any such communication.

§61-3-24d. Fraudulent schemes; cumulation of amounts where common scheme exists; penalties.
(a) Any person who willfully deprives another of any money, goods, property or services by means of fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises shall be guilty of the larceny thereof.

(b) In determining the value of the money, goods, property or services referred to in subsection (a) of this section, it shall be permissible to cumulate amounts or values where such money, goods, property or services were fraudulently obtained as part of a common scheme or plan.

(c) A violation of law may be prosecuted under this section notwithstanding any other provision of this code.

§61-3-24e. Omission to subscribe for workers' compensation insurance; failure to file a premium tax report or pay premium taxes; false testimony or statements; failure to file reports; penalties; asset forfeiture; venue.
(1) Failure to subscribe:

(A) Responsible person. Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a person who is responsible for and who is required by specific assignment, duty or legal duty, which is either expressed or inherent in laws which require the employer's principals to be informed and to know the facts and laws affecting the business organization and to make internal policy and decisions which ensure that the individual and organization comply with the general laws and provisions of chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to subscribe for and maintain workers' compensation insurance shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years, or in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(B) Any corporation, association or partnership who, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to subscribe for and maintain workers' compensation insurance shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars.

(2) Failure to pay:

(A) Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully fails to make premium tax payments to the Workers' Compensation Fund or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(B) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to make premium tax payments to the Workers' Compensation Fund or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed, and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars.

(C) Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a responsible person, as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully and with fraudulent intent sells, transfers or otherwise disposes of substantially all of the employer's assets for the purpose of evading the payment of workers' compensation premium taxes to the Workers' Compensation Fund, or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(D) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully and with fraudulent intent sells, transfers or otherwise disposes of substantially all of the employer's assets for the purpose of evading the payment of workers' compensation premium taxes to the Workers' Compensation Fund, or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed, and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars.

(3) Failure to file premium tax reports:

(A) Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully fails to file a premium tax report with the Workers' Compensation Fund or a premium report to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years, or in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(B) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to file a premium tax report with the Workers' Compensation Fund or a premium report to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars.

(4) Failure to file other reports:

(A) Any person, individually or as owner, partner, president or other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully fails to file any report, other than a premium tax report, required by such chapter shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(B) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to file any report, other than a premium tax report, with the Workers' Compensation Fund or Insurance Commissioner as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars.

(5) False testimony or statements:

Any person, individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully makes a false report or statement under oath, affidavit, certification or by any other means respecting any information required to be provided under chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one year nor more than three years or fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court. In addition to any other penalty imposed, the court shall order any defendant convicted under this section to make full restitution of all moneys paid by or due to the Workers' Compensation Fund, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier as the result of a violation of this section. The restitution ordered shall constitute a judgment against the defendant and in favor of the State of West Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier.

(6) Asset forfeiture:

(A) The court, in imposing sentence on a person or entity convicted of an offense under this section, shall order the person or entity to forfeit property, real or personal, that constitutes or is derived, directly or indirectly, from gross proceeds traceable to the commission, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier of the offense. Any person or entity convicted under this section shall pay the costs of asset forfeiture.

(B) For purposes of subdivision (A) of this subsection, the term "payment of the costs of asset forfeiture" means:

(i) The payment of any expenses necessary to seize, detain, inventory, safeguard, maintain, advertise, sell or dispose of property under seizure, detention, forfeiture or of any other necessary expenses incident to the seizure, detention, forfeiture, or disposal of such property, including payment for:

(I) Contract services;

(II) The employment of outside contractors to operate and manage properties or provide other specialized services necessary to dispose of such properties in an effort to maximize the return from such properties; and

(III) Reimbursement of any state or local agency for any expenditures made to perform the functions described in this subparagraph;

(ii) The compromise and payment of valid liens and mortgages against property that has been forfeited, subject to the discretion of the Workers' Compensation Fund to determine the validity of any such lien or mortgage and the amount of payment to be made, and the employment of attorneys and other personnel skilled in state real estate law as necessary;

(iii) Payment authorized in connection with remission or mitigation procedures relating to property forfeited; and

(iv) The payment of state and local property taxes on forfeited real property that accrued between the date of the violation giving rise to the forfeiture and the date of the forfeiture order.

(7) Venue:

Venue for prosecution of any violation of this section shall be either the county in which the defendant's principal business operations are located or in Kanawha County where the Workers' Compensation Fund is located.

§61-3-39d. Prima facie evidence of knowledge; identity; penalty for providing false information.
(a) In any prosecution under section thirty-nine of this article, the making, drawing, uttering or delivery of a check, draft or order, the payment of which is refused by the drawee because of lack of funds or credit, shall be prima facie evidence that the drawer has knowledge at the time of making, drawing, issuing, uttering or delivering such check, draft or order that there is not sufficient funds or credit to pay the same, unless the check, draft or order is paid along with any charges or costs authorized by this article.

(b) In any prosecution under section thirty-nine-a of this article, it shall constitute prima facie evidence of the identity of the drawer of a check, draft order if at the time of acceptance of such check, draft or order there is obtained the following information: Name and residence, business or mailing address and either a valid motor vehicle operator's number or the drawer's home or work phone number or place of employment. Such information may be recorded on the check, draft or order itself or may be retained on file by the payee and referred to on the check, draft or order by identifying number or other similar means.

(c) Any person who shall provide false information when information is requested prior to accepting a check, draft or order either at the time such check, draft or order is presented or for the purpose of obtaining a check cashing identification card or similar check cashing privilege shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

§61-3-40. Fraudulently obtaining food or lodging; penalty.
Every person who shall, at any hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, receive or cause to be furnished any food or accommodation, with intent to defraud the owner or keeper of such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, and any person who shall obtain credit at any hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, by the use of any false pretense or device, or by depositing in such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, any baggage or property of less value than the amount of such credit, or of the bill by such person incurred, with such fraudulent intent, and any person who, after obtaining credit or accommodation at any hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, shall abscond from such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, or shall remove or attempt to remove therefrom any baggage or personal property of any kind subject to the lien provided for in section five, article eleven, chapter thirty-eight of this code, with intent to defraud the owner or keeper of such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, without first having paid, satisfied or arranged all claims or bills for lodging, entertainment or accommodation, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than two hundred dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court or justice trying the case, be confined in the county jail for a term of not less than ten nor more than thirty days. A justice of the peace for the county wherein the offense was committed shall have concurrent jurisdiction of such offense with the circuit or other courts of such county.

§61-3-44. Procuring gas, water or electricity, by device, with intent to defraud; penalty.
Every person who, with intent to injure or defraud, procures, makes, or causes to be made, any pipe, tube, wire, or other conductor of gas, water or electric energy, and connects the same, or causes it to be connected, with any main, service pipe or other pipe for conducting or supplying gas, or water, or any wires or other conductor of electric energy, in such manner as to supply gas, water or electric energy to any lamp, motor, burner, orifice, or any other device, by or at which gas, water or electric energy is consumed, around or without passing through the meter provided for measuring and registering the quantity of gas, water or electric energy consumed, or in any other manner so as to evade payment therefor, and every person who, with like intent, injures or alters any gas, water or electric meter, or obstructs its action, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county jail not exceeding twelve months, or fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

§61-3-46. Use of slugs, false coins, etc., in coin-box telephone; penalty.
Any person who shall operate, or cause to be operated, or attempt to operate any coin-box telephone designed to receive lawful coin of the United States of America, in connection with the use or enjoyment of any telephone service, by means of a slug or any false, counterfeited, mutilated, sweated or foreign coin, or by any means, method, trick or device whatsoever, not lawfully authorized by the owner, lessee or licensee of such coin-box telephone shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding twelve months, or by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or both at the discretion of the court.

§61-3-50. Unauthorized transferral of recorded sounds; sale and possession; penalties; civil action; definition.
(a) No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain transfer by electronic or mechanical means or cause to be transferred by electronic or mechanical means with intent to sell for profit the recorded sounds contained on any phonograph record, disc, tape, film or other device without the permission of the owner of such recorded sounds or his authorized representative, or to knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, sell or possess with intent to sell any phonograph record, disc, tape, film or other device containing such unauthorized transferred recorded sounds. This paragraph applies to sound recordings initially fixed prior to the fifteenth day of February, one thousand nine hundred seventy-two.

No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain offer for sale, sell, rent, transport, cause the sale, resale, rental or transportation of or possess for one or more of these purposes a recording of a live performance with the knowledge that the live performance has been recorded or fixed without the consent of the owner.

No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain record or fix or cause to be recorded or fixed on any type of recording device a live performance with the knowledge that the live performance is being recorded or fixed without the consent of the owner.

No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain offer for sale, sell, rent, transport, or cause the sale, resale, rental or transportation of or possess for one or more of these purposes, any phonograph record, disc, tape, film, video tape, video cassette or other device which fails to clearly and conspicuously disclose the actual name and address of the manufacturer thereof.

(b) Any owner of such recorded sounds, images or any audio-visual combination and any person lawfully transferring such sounds by agreement with such owner shall have a cause of action for the unauthorized transferral of such sounds and shall be entitled to treble damages resulting therefrom.

(c) (1) For the purpose of this section, the term "owner" means the person vested with the rights to and ownership of the original fixation of sounds, images or any audio-visual combination embodied in the master phonograph record, master disc, master tape, master film or other device used for transferring sounds or images on phonograph records, discs, tapes, films, video tapes or video cassettes or other similar articles upon which sounds, images or any audio-visual combination are recorded and from which the transferred recorded sounds and/or images are directly derived.

In the absence of a written agreement or law to the contrary, the performer or performers of a live performance are presumed to own the rights to record or fix the sounds, images or any audio-visual combination of a live performance. A person who is authorized to maintain custody and control over business records that reflect whether or not the owner or owners of a live performance consented to having a live performance recorded or fixed is a proper witness in a proceeding regarding the issue of consent.

(2) For the purposes of this section, the term "manufacturer" means the person who transfers, authorizes or causes the transfer of a recording of sounds, images or any audio-visual combination to a phonograph record, disc, tape, film, video tape, video cassette or other device.

(d) (1) Any person convicted of an offense under this section involving less than one hundred unlawful sound recordings or less than twenty unlawful audio-visual recordings shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than one year in jail or both fined and imprisoned.

(2) Any person convicted of an offense under this section involving at least one hundred but less than one thousand unlawful sound recordings or at least twenty but less than sixty-five audio-visual recordings shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than two years in the penitentiary or both fined and imprisoned.

(3) Any person convicted of an offense under this section involving at least one thousand unlawful sound recordings or at least sixty-five unlawful audio-visual recordings shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than five years in the penitentiary or both fined and imprisoned.

(4) Any person convicted of a second or subsequent offense under this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than five years or both fined and imprisoned.

(5) Any unauthorized recorded sounds or images produced in violation of this section and any equipment used for such purpose shall be confiscated by the appropriate law-enforcement agency.

If a person is convicted of any violation under this chapter, the court in its judgment of conviction shall order the forfeiture and destruction or release to a law-enforcement agency for use in official agency business of all infringing recordings and of any equipment or components used or intended to be used in the production of the recordings. All infringing phonograph records, discs, tapes, films, video tapes, video cassettes or other devices shall be destroyed once they are no longer needed for court proceedings. Nothing contained herein shall apply to televisions and radio stations licensed by the federal communications commission or to educational institutions, when the purpose of such reproduction is limited and used for criticism, comments, news reporting, archival or educational purposes.

§61-3-53. Unauthorized use of dumpsters.
(a) Any person who without authorization dumps garbage or trash, or assists in the unauthorized dumping of garbage or trash, in a dumpster or other solid waste container which is located on the property of another person and leased or otherwise owned or maintained by another person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. The act of throwing isolated objects into a dumpster or other solid waste container in the prevention or elimination of litter is specifically excepted from any penalties under this section.

(b) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor under subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the following penalties:

(1) Upon a first conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars.

(2) Upon a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

(3) Upon any subsequent conviction in excess of a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

Notwithstanding the provisions of section four, article eleven-a of this chapter or section two-a, article three, chapter fifty of this code, the magistrate or court may order restitution not to exceed the value of unauthorized solid waste services received.

§61-3-54. Taking identity of another person; penalty.
Any person who knowingly takes the name, birth date, social security number or other identifying information of another person, without the consent of that other person, with the intent to fraudulently represent that he or she is the other person for the purpose of making financial or credit transactions in the other person's name, is guilty of a felony, and upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not more than five years, or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both: Provided , That the provisions of this section do not apply to any person who obtains another person's drivers license or other form of identification for the sole purpose of misrepresenting his or her age.

§61-3-55. Failure to pay for gasoline.
Any person who knowingly and willfully drives a motor vehicle off the premises of an establishment where gasoline offered for retail sale was dispensed into the fuel tank of the motor vehicle with the intent to avoid payment for the gasoline that was so dispensed shall be deemed to be guilty of the larceny thereof. In addition to the penalties provided for by the provisions of section thirteen, article three of this chapter, upon a second conviction for larceny of gasoline, the court shall order the suspension of the person's license to drive a motor vehicle for six months, and upon a third or subsequent conviction, the court shall order the suspension of the person's license to drive a motor vehicle for one year.

Whenever a second or subsequent offense is had under the provisions of this section, the clerk of the court shall transmit a certified abstract of the judgment to the division of motor vehicles within seventy-two hours of the conviction. Upon receipt of the abstract of judgment the division of motor vehicles shall enter an order suspending the person's license to operate a motor vehicle for the appropriate time period.

§61-11-1. Classification of offenses.
Offenses are either felonies or misdemeanors. Such offenses as are punishable by confinement in the penitentiary are felonies; all other offenses are misdemeanors.

The word "penitentiary" as used in this section shall mean and include any and all institutions provided by the state for the confinement of persons sentenced to confinement in the penitentiary, notwithstanding that transfers of such persons from any one of such institutions to another may be authorized.

§61-11-1a. Sentence of female felons.
Upon conviction of a female for a felony and subsequent sentence of confinement, the trial court shall sentence her to the custody of the state department of corrections.

61-2-12. Robbery or attempted robbery; penalties.
(a) Any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by: (1) Committing violence to the person, including, but not limited to, partial strangulation or suffocation or by striking or beating; or (2) uses the threat of deadly force by the presenting of a firearm or other deadly weapon, is guilty of robbery in the first degree and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than ten years.

(b) Any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by placing the victim in fear of bodily injury by means other than those set forth in subsection (a) of this section or any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by the use of any means designed to temporarily disable the victim, including, but not limited to, the use of a disabling chemical substance or an electronic shock device, is guilty of robbery in the second degree and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than five years nor more than eighteen years.

(c) If any person: (1) By force and violence, or by putting in fear, feloniously takes, or feloniously attempts to take, from the person or presence of another any property or money or any other thing of value belonging to, or in the care, custody, control, management or possession of, any bank, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty years; and (2) if any person in committing, or in attempting to commit, any offense defined in the preceding clause (1) of this subsection, assaults any person, or puts in jeopardy the life of any person by the use of a dangerous weapon or device, disabling chemical substance or an electronic shock device, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than ten years nor more than twenty-five years.

§61-4-1. Forgery of public record, certificate, return or attestation of court or officer; penalty.
If any person forge a public record, or a certificate, return or attestation of a clerk of a court, notary public, judge, justice, or any public officer, in relation to any matter wherein such certificate, return, or attestation may be received as legal proof, or utter or attempt to employ as true such forged record, certificate, return or attestation, knowing the same to be forged, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.

§61-4-2. Forgery of official seals; keeping or concealing instrument for forging same; penalty.
If any person forge, or keep or conceal any instrument for the purpose of forging, the seal of a court, or of any public office or body politic or corporate in this state, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.

§61-4-3. Counterfeiting; penalty.
If any person forge any coin, current by law or usage in this state, or any note or bill of a banking institution, or fraudulently make any base coin, or a note or bill purporting to be the note or bill of a banking institution, when such banking institution does not exist; or utter or attempt to employ as true, or sell, exchange or deliver, or offer to sell, exchange or deliver, or receive on sale, exchange, or delivery, with intent to utter or employ or to have the same uttered or employed as true, any such false, forged, or base coin, note or bill, knowing it to be so, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.

§61-4-4. Making plates, etc., for forgery; possession of same; penalty.
If any person engrave, stamp, or cast, or otherwise make or mend any plate, block, press or other thing adapted and designed for the forging and false-making of any writing or other thing, the forging or false-making whereof is punishable by this article; or if such person have in his possession any such plate, block, press, or other thing, with intent to use, or cause or permit it to be used, in forging or false-making any such writing or other thing, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more ten years.

§61-4-5. Forging or uttering other writing; penalty; creation of unauthorized demand draft.
(a) If any person forge any writing, other than such as is mentioned in the first and third sections of this article, to the prejudice of another's right, or utter or attempt to employ as true such forged writing, knowing it to be forged, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

(b) It is a violation of this section to create a demand draft under the purported authority of another person for the purpose of charging the other person's account with a bank or other financial institution, or to utter or attempt to employ as true such demand draft, if the demand draft is created with the intent to defraud, and either or both of the following elements is present:

(1) The person does not, in fact, have the authority to charge the other person's account; or

(2) The amount of the demand draft exceeds the amount authorized to be charged.

(c) If a person creates a demand draft without authority or which exceeds the amount authorized to be charged to an account, and the demand draft contains the account holder's printed or typewritten name or account number, or a notation that the account holder authorized the draft, or a statement "No signature required", "Authorization on file", "Signature on file", or words to that effect, the demand draft is the equivalent of a check on which the drawer's signature is forged or altered.

(d) For purposes of this section, the term "demand draft" shall have the meaning ascribed to it in section one hundred four, article three, chapter forty-six of this code.

§61-4-6. Possession of counterfeit with intent to utter; penalty.
If any person have in his possession forged bank notes, or pieces of forged or base coin, such as are mentioned in the third section of this article, knowing the same to be forged or base, with intent to utter or employ the same as true, or to sell, exchange, or deliver them, so as to enable any other person to utter or employ them as true, he shall, if the number of such notes or pieces of coin in his possession, at the same time, be ten or more, be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, and if the number thereof be less than ten, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than six months nor more than one year and be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

§61-4-7. Unauthorized currency; penalty.
If any person shall, without authority of law, issue any note or other security purporting that money or other thing of value is payable by or on behalf of such person, with intent thereby to create a circulating medium, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and fined not more than five hundred dollars; and the acceptance of any such note or security shall not operate as a payment of any debt or claim due or to become due to the person so accepting the same: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the giving of checks, promissory notes, single bills, bonds, orders, drafts or bills of exchange for a debt or claim due or to become due.

§61-4-8. Passing or receiving unauthorized currency knowingly; penalty.
If any person not punishable under the provisions of the preceding section shall knowingly pass or receive in payment any such note or security, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars.

Identity Theft      
State State Code Statute Title Statute, penalties and restitution

West Virginia

61-3-54

Taking identity of another person; penalty

Felony; punished by confinement in the penitentiary not more than five years, or fined not more than $1,000, or both

 

 

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Please note, the theft law information on this page is provided as a courtesy to help explain theft, shoplifting and stealing laws. There is no guarantee or assurance of reliability or validity. Laws change over time and this page may or may not be current. The code that is provided on this site is an unofficial posting of the State Codes. The files making up this Internet version of the State Codes do not constitute the official text of the State Codes and are intended for informational purposes only. No representation is made as to the accuracy or completeness of these sections. While every effort was made to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the statutes available Offender SolutionsT shall not be liable or held responsible for any errors or omissions which may occur in these files, they are provided on an "As Is" basis. Use of the information and services are at the sole risk of the user. For official versions of any state's current laws, the user is directed to that states Revised Statutes, all amendments and cumulative supplements thereto published by that state. Please notify the Webmaster if you find any irregularities in the statutes on this web site. The Webmaster will relay the information to appropriate staff to investigate the irregularities. The printed version of the State Codes should be consulted for all matters requiring reliance on the statutory text. If you were involved in a theft or shoplifting incident you are encouraged to consider taking a theft cloass, theft course or shoplifting education class such as the one provided by offender solutions. Research shows theft school and/or theft education can be an effective theft prevention. Offender Solutions™ is an online theft education, shoplifting education class about stealing, it can be very effective if you want to stop stealing. Evan it was a small theft, a petty theft class or petty theft school could be right for you!



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If you don't like something change it; if you can't change it, change the way you think about it. 

~Mary Engelbreit

 

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Our Philosophy

Change your thoughts and you change your world.

~Norman Vincent Peale
(1898 - 1993
)

Your Online Class

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Offender Solutions® is a professional online service for juvenile and adult offenders.

Judges, probation officers, schools, mental health professionals, parents, etc. can refer clients to the Offender Solutions® online classes.

Individuals who feel they have a problem may also choose to participate on their own initiative. There are two ways to take the class: 1) online, 2) workbook (by mail)

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Why Our Online Class?

24 hour / 7 day a week access

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Immediate Proof of Enrollment

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Support 7 days a week

Work at your own pace

Start and stop at any time

No appointment necessary

Use home computer or

Use school or public library

No embarrassing groups

Broken down into6 or 7 chapters

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Green - No driving, no gas

A world class learning experience

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Free Certificate of Completion

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** Also available as a workbook